Bernoulli's principle and Venturi tubeBernoulli’s principle  states that when  a fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction or narrowing  of the  tube  the speed  of  the  fluid  passing through the constriction is increased and its pressure is decreased.




Aircraft main landing gear

Figure 1-11 Main landing gear. conventional  type.

The tricycle gear is more stable during ground operations and makes landing easier, especially in crosswinds. It also maintains the fuselage in a level position that increases the pilot’s visibility. Nearly all Navy aircraft are equipped with tricycle landing gear.

A main landing gear assembly is shown in figure 1-11. The major components of the assembly are the shock strut, tire, tube, wheel, brake assembly, retracting and extending mechanism, and side struts and supports. The shock strut absorbs the shock that otherwise would be sustained by the airframe structure during takeoff, taxiing, and landing. The air-oil shock strut is used on all Navy aircraft. This type of strut is composed essentially of two telescoping cylinders filled with hydraulic fluid and compressed air or nitrogen.



NASA QAT – Quiet A/C Technology

NASA courtesy – Click on the link below to watch the video (+ script in the footer caption):

NASA quiet aircraft technology



Dew and frost - C-17 Globemaster III de-icing in Alaska

U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Keith Brown

ELMENDORF AIR FORCE BASE, Alaska – Members of the 703rd Aircraft Maintenance Squadron de-ice a C-17 Globemaster III from the 517th Airlift Squadron before a training mission. Heavy snow and weeks of sub-zero temperatures require extra effort from maintenance crews to keep the aircraft clear of ice and snow. The training mission included dropping Army Airborne Soldiers from Fort Richardson, Alaska, and conducting air drops of training bundles that simulate the Soldier’s equipment. (from AIR FORCE LINK)


Dew does not actually fall; rather the moisture condenses from air that is in direct contact with the cool surface. During clear, still nights, vegetation often cools by radiation to a temperature at or below the dew point of the adjacent air. Moisture then collects on the leaves just as it does on a pitcher of ice water in a warm room. Heavy dew is often observed on grass and plants when there is none on the pavements or on large, solid objects. These objects absorb so much heat during the day or give up heat so slowly, they may not cool below the dew point of the surrounding air during the night. Another type of dew is white dew. White dew is a deposit of white, frozen dew drops. It first forms as liquid dew, then freezes.


Frost, or hoarfrost, is formed by the process of sublimation. It is a deposit of ice having a crystalline appearance and generally assumes the form of scales, needles, feathers, or fans. Hoarfrost is the solid equivalent of dew and should not be confused with white dew, which is dew frozen after it forms.