Charles « Chuck » YEAGER – 71 years ago !

THE RIGHT STUFF  / L’ETOFFE des HEROS

Supersonic aircraft X-1 in flight
Photo: NASA

Captain Charles « Chuck » YEAGER broke the sound barrier with the help of his friend Jack RIDLEY on a 14th of October 1947 – He did it 71 years ago!

Brigadier General Charles Chuck Yeager next to his X-1 aircraft

(U. S. Air Force illustration/Mike Carabajal)

Supersonic aircraft X-1
Photo: NASA

Supersonic aircraft X-1 pre-flight inspection

Photo: U.S.Air Force Link

XLR-11 ROCKET POWERED AIRCRAFT

Birth of Manned Rocket Research Airplanes: 1946 to 1975

The first reliable, effective rocket engine that would provide boost for experimental research aircraft was produced by four members of the American Rocket Society (ARS) who combined forces to form Reaction Motors Incorporated (RMI) (Rockaway, New Jersey) for developing the Experimental Liquid Rocket (XLR-11) rocket motor. The XLR-11 engine had four separate rocket chambers. Each chamber provided 1500 lb of rated thrust and could be operated independently as a means of throttling thrust in quarters, up to 6000 pounds. The XLR-11 possessed remarkable longevity, powering an impressive fleet of rocket aircraft for more than a quarter of a century (1946 to 1975). This fleet of vehicles were the first rocket aircraft devoted solely to high performance experimental flight research. They were not constrained by military or commercial demands and ranged from being the first to break the sound barrier (XS-1), to the first to reach Mach 2.0 (D-558-II [fig. 5]), to the first to exceed the X-2 Mach 3.2 record (X-15 with two XLR-11 engines).

D-558-II airplane on Rogers lakebed

Figure 5. The D-558-II airplane on Rogers lakebed.

The X-1E – Early Development of Energy Management

Design efforts to extend aircraft performance produced increased wing loadings, W/S, and decreased lift-to-drag ratios, L/D. These design changes were beneficial in reducing drag to achieve supersonic and hypersonic speeds, but were also detrimental in that they reduced the area of the maneuvering footprint and presented difficulties in the approach and landing.

As L/D values decreased, the glide slope angle and the rate of descent increased, making it more difficult for pilots to estimate distances and times required for acceptable landings. The X-1E (fig. 6) was modified with a low-aspect-ratio wing having a thickness-to-chord ratio of four percent – the only aircraft of the X-1/D-558 series to have sufficiently low L/D values to require unique energy management techniques. This X-1E was the first to experiment with approach patterns designed to give
the pilot more time in the traffic pattern to manage energy.

The landing pattern was approached in a conventional manner except that altitudes and speeds were somewhat higher than for
powered aircraft. The initial reference point was established at 12,000 ft (mean sea level) on a downwind heading (180 deg remaining to turn). The downwind leg was offset some four miles from the centerline of the landing runway. On downwind, abeam the touchdown point, landing gear and partial flaps were deployed at a speed of 240 knots. Full flaps were usually deployed on the final approach. At the initial reference point the pilot had almost three minutes until touchdown – additional time for handling increased speeds and sink rates.7,8

X-1 supersonic aircraft on Lakebed

Figure 6. The X-1E airplane on Rogers lakebed.

X-1E supersonic aircraft under B-29 Mothership

Secret declassified USAF pilot Charles Chuck Yeager after breaking the sound barrier on X-1

Report from www.archives.gov

X-1 supersonic aircraft instrument panel

(Text from the NASA at: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/home/index.html)

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Brand New AVIATION NEWSPAPER Born on Sound Barrier’s Day…

I guessed it might be a good idea to start a new aviation newspaper on the « Sound Barrier’s Day » if I may put it this way (October 14, 1947 ==> Chuck YEAGER, and maybe in a few minutes… October 14, 2012 ==> Felix BAUMGARTNER – Let us hope he will succeed in breaking both the sound barrier, and a new freefall record)

 

Come read my newspaper about AVIATION
You are invited to discover my newspaper! I select and edit my favorite content daily, and Paper.li does the rest. It’s a great way to treat yourself to fresh news…

AVIATION

Published by Recce233Savoie

 

… After all, could be nice to celebrate this day throughout the world

😉


 

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F-22 Pilots would be Suffering from « Raptor Cough »

F-22 Raptor tight turn
F-22 - © USAF photo Tech Sgt Justin D. Pyle

 

 

 

According to the CBS news video report below, F-22 pilots would have stopped flying 5th-generation F-22 Raptor for they would have reported HH (Health Hazards) incidents onboard the most advanced fighter aircraft in the U.S. Air Force, and the most expensive ever.

 

« The F-22 has been plagued by a mysterious flaw that causes its pilots to become disoriented while at the controls, from a lack of oxygen. »

 

Thanks to this interview, we now know that a pilot would have touched a tree while flying an F-22 as he may have been suffering from hypoxia (oxygen deficiency in body tissue). Some other pilots reported dizziness, vertigo, and coughing spell.

 

« The Air Force launched an investigation that focused on the plane’s On-Board Oxygen Generating System, or OBOGS which takes air from outside the jet, passes through the engine, and through a chemical process to produce a concentrated oxygen that the pilot breathes – Watch the video:

 

 

© USAF photo Tech Sgt Justin D. Pyle, www.af.mil courtesy

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CONSEILS de PREPARATION aux EXAMENS FCL 1.200 et FCL 1.028

Important information: FCL 1.028 and FCL 1.200 will be replaced by FCL .055 and FCL .055 D from April 9, 2013.

Airbus A380 turn - Paris Airshow 2009
Airbus A380 turn – Paris Airshow 2009

Un grand merci à Monsieur Thierry HERMAS, professeur d’anglais et de radiotéléphonie aéronautique aux Ecoles d’officiers de l’Armée de l’air (EOAA à Salon de Provence) qui a compilé des documents de la DGAC et ses conseils pour préparer le FCL 1.200 (anciennement appelée QRI pour « Qualification de Radiotéléphonie Internationale« ) et le FCL 1.028 qui est une qualification de pratique de l’anglais OACI (Organisation de l’Aviation Civile Internationale).

Il importe toutefois de surveiller les mises à jours et les dates d’inscription sur le site de la DGAC, derniers liens en date du 29 avril 2012:

FCL 1.200

FCL 1.028

Compétences linguistiques OACI

 

Merci aussi à Xavier Cotton (webmestre de PASSION pour l’AVIATION) pour cette magnifique photo prise au Salon du Bourget (Paris Airshow) en 2009.

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Could RAFALE benefit from F-35 glitches?

 

JSF F-35 Lightning II
F-35 Lightning II

The British Harriers were to be replaced by the F-35Cs. Do you remember? You may have learnt from the recent news that the carrier variant of the Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Joint Strike Fighter – CV JSF (Carrier Vessel variant’s Joint Strike Fighter) – F-35C was unable to catch the wire onboard the aircraft carrier during the latest landing tests.

Strange as it may seem, the F-35C’s designers may have not forecast what would unfold during a test flight while landing on an aircraft carrier:

The arresting hook (tailhook) never engaged the arresting wire as the clearance between the tail hook and the main landing gear’s tyre tread is too short for such a speed. An F-35C Lightning II missing her carrier landing has been reported even though some U.S. officials would have dismissed such information which might result from simulated tests.

Added to that is a software bug which had grounded the CV JSF for 6 days a few month earlier for the fifth-generation fighter aircraft might have encountered wing-folding input while flying!

As a result, the British Ministry of Defence might find a Plan-B solution as these design flaws, and some others which date back to November 2011 are deemed unacceptable for such an expensive fighter aircraft – $139.5 million for the F-35C (CATOBAR – Catapult Assisted Take Off But Arrested Recovery), and $150 million for the F-35B (STOVL – Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing). The latter can land on carriers but she is more expensive, and the JSF program costs have already increased several times.

 

Moreover, the JSF would not be able to fire AMRAAM air-to-air missiles as reported in this video:

 

 

RAFALE La Ferté Alais 2010 - © Xavier Cotton http://passiondesavions.blogspot.de/
RAFALE La Ferté Alais 2010 © Xavier Cotton http://passiondesavions.blogspot.de/

And there’s even more: according to a Pentagon study team report, 13 areas of concern that remained to be addressed in the F-35 would have been identified. For instance, the Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS) would not work properly…

The British MoD is therefore considering the purchase of either F/A-18E Super Hornets or RAFALEs for the RAF. The French Dassault which has already lost the Swiss NAC tender due to replace the Swiss Air Force’s F-5s, would be proposing a new offer with 18 RAFALEs at a cost deemed lower than the 22 SAAB Gripens’ one according to the Swiss press.

The RAFALE is still in competition with the Eurofighter in the Indian MMRCA tender. the Indian officials are expected to make a decision this week. To be continued… ==> We have just learnt (on January 31, 2012) that the RAFALE has won the MMRCA tender… 🙂

 

Photo 1: © Recce 233 Savoie; Photo 2: © Xavier Cotton – http://passiondesavions.blogspot.de/

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